The death penalty or capital punishment is defined as “the execution of a convicted criminal by the State for crimes known as capital offenses.”
The Catechism of the Catholic Church talks about capital punishment in paragraph #2267 as follows:
“Assuming that the guilty party’s identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor.
If, however, non-lethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people’s safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person.
Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm – without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself – the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity “are very rare, if not practically non-existent.”
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued a pastoral statement calling for the end to the use of the death penalty. A Culture of Life and the Penalty of Death gives concrete ways to fight for a culture of life through actively working to end capital punishment.
“The New Evangelization calls for followers of Christ who are unconditionally pro-life: who will proclaim, celebrate and serve the Gospel of life in every situation. A sign of hope is the increasing recognition that the dignity of human life must never be taken away, even in the case of someone who has done great evil. Modern society has the means of protecting itself, without definitively denying criminals the chance to reform. I renew the appeal I made most recently at Christmas for a consensus to end the death penalty, which is both cruel and unnecessary.” — Pope John Paul II, January 27, 1999, St. Louis, Missouri